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Review of Fish Oil Supplementation

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http://junction25.com/wp-content/vuln.php Fish Oil [FO] is a supplement that is growing rapid in popularity and research.In both the general and athletic population research has shown that FO has been effective in prevention in diseases such as breast cancer, Alzheimer’s, depression and cardiovascular.It also has been shown as a maintenance supplement for inflammation in joints, prenatal health and mental health.As clinicians, athletes, coaches and consumers we find ourselves asking the question “what makes each supplement credible?” Or “Why should we as consumers use this supplement?”Currently the National Institute of Health’s website recently listed more than 60 studies actively recruiting volunteers to study the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in FO (Huffman, Michaelson & Thomas, 2004). Furthermore, research studies have shown evidence that omega-3 fatty acids in FO may play an important role in preventing or modulating a myriad of diseases or conditions (Huffman et al., 2004).

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http://junction25.com/wp-content/plugins/ubh/index.php FO is oil derived from the tissue of specific fishes high in oil, for example, cod, tuna, salmon and sardines (De Leiris, De Lorgeril, & Boucher, 2009, Peet, Stokes, 2005).The fish are pressed to release its oils and then processed to remove impurities.Both wild and farmed fish are good sources of omega-3 fatty acids (De Leiris et al., 2009).What is key in FO is its high amount of omega 3.Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which the human body cannot produce (Martin, 2007,Peet et. al, 2005).The body therefore must rely on outside sources such as supplementation or food to obtain omega-3.Foods outside of fish that may contain omega 3’s include flax seeds, walnuts, eggs and black raspberries (De Leiris et al., 2009, Huffman et al., 2004).FO can be found at your local health food store, grocery store or pharmacy.Dosing is dependent upon specific condition the consumer is treating to treat or prevent.FO comes in several different strengths and forms.A consumer should consult with a medical professional if they are unsure of which specific one’s they should be taking.

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http://nancynorthcott.jim-mcdonald.net/category/books/?series=the-lethal-webs AND 9005=9005-- eeeY Starting the long list of health benefits from FO is cardiovascular health improvements. Research concerning cardiovascular improvements with FO is immense in proportion.The main attribution to these improvements comes from the FO’s ability to decrease triglycerides within the bloodstream (De Leiris et al., 2009, Huffman et al., 2004). With the reduction of triglycerides chance of heart attacks and sudden cardiac death is decreased and cardiac arrhythmias are improved (De Leiris et al., 2009, Huffman et al., 2004).Several studies have also shown an inverse relationship between ischemic stroke and consumption of fish and fish oils (De Leiris et al., 2009). Omega-3s within FO also have anti-inflammatory effects, which may decrease blood pressure and improve cardiac arrhythmias (De Leiris et al., 2009, Huffman et al., 2004).The omega-3s inhibit leukotriene-mediated inflammation.Inflammation plays a huge part in many chronic diseases. If inflammation is inhibited the manifestation of the disease may be controlled (De Leiris et al., 2009).In athletics, cardiac issues may inhibit an athlete’s performance, or even potentially be fatal, in the case of sudden cardiac death.Athletes’ performance may also be inhibited by increased blood pressure.If FO can assist in decrease blood pressure and improve cardiac arrhythmias their performance may be improved through FO supplementation.

http://nancynorthcott.jim-mcdonald.net/gigis-magic-christmas//?action=excerpt A second major health benefit is reduced inflammation.Fatty acids are components of individual cell walls.Here they serve as substrates for inflammatory mediators (Huffman et al., 2004).This creates a stop in production in pro-inflammatory molecules, which in turn reduce inflammation (Huffman et al., 2004).The human body man benefit in several ways when reducing inflammation.Rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, decreased blood pressure, improved joint mobility and increased muscle recovery time are just a few of several health benefits (De Leiris et al., 2009,Huffman et al., 2004, James, Proudman & Cleland, 2010, Maroon & Bost, 2006, Peet et. al, 2005).To the athletic population, improved joint mobility and increased muscle recovery are the most important benefits here.An athlete who can recover quicker in between workouts or multi-competition events may have improved performance.Also, many chronic inflammatory injuries such as tendonitis result from overuse and an increase in inflammation.If an athlete my reduce inflammation in a chronic injury they may further their performance and practice time.Finally, asthma and exercise induced asthma is a bronchospasm, or inflammation of the bronchial tubes connecting the lungs to the larynx.Asthma treatments involve using leukotriene modifiers and corticosteroid (Mickleborough, Lindley & Montgomery, 2008). The DHA in omega-3 in FO’s may act as substrates in pro-inflammatory mediators as mentioned above and thus decreasing inflammation within the bronchi and reducing bronchospasm (Mickleborough et al., 2008).This may benefit those athletes with exercise-induced asthma and allow them to practice longer and at a more competitive rate.

Phentermine Hydrochloride Where To Buy A third major health benefit from FO is improved mental function, this may range anywhere from slowed progression of Alzheimer’s to reduced depression symptoms.There are two main omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Peet et. al, 2005).Each of these fatty acids plays an important role in the central nervous system.The central nervous system controls levels of serotonin and dopamine, which are released to balance hormone levels.When not enough of one or the other is released depression occurs (Peet et. al, 2005).In patients diagnosed with depression a low level of both DHA and EPA has been reported (Peet et. al, 2005).

An athlete may benefit from FO in a mental aspect by maintaining a proper release of the chemicals of serotonin and dopamine (Grenyer, Crowe, Meyer, Owen, Grigonis-Deane & Caputi, 2007).Improved performance could result from a better state of mind.Athletes who have also been diagnosed with disorders such as schizophrenia or bipolarism would also benefit as studies have shown improvements in these diseases with a FO supplement (Grenyer et. al, 2007, Peet et. al, 2005).

Some other health benefits that the general population could benefit from more so than the athletic performance are anti-aging effects and improved prenatal health.Expecting mothers may improve development of the baby’s retina, nervous system and brain (Scott, 2007).70% of a child’s brain, nervous system and retina are made up of DHA Omega-3 fatty acids. A child’s decreased attention span may also be improved decreasing the likelihood of ADHD in children.Concerning anti-aging effects, studies have shown FO reduces macular degeneration, which may improve sight in the elderly (Scott, 2007).

While research is limited in the athletic population on FO supplementation it is believed that the current FO supplementation research within the general population is providing a backbone for future studies in athletics.Three research studies were found with significant findings regarding FO supplementation.These three studies involved athletes and exercise based tests that showed improvements in the area of cardio, respiratory and fat oxidation.

In the study on improved fat oxidation with FO supplementation Huffman considered evidence that supported FO stimulating fat oxidation in the liver and skeletal muscle tissue.Seven recreationally fit males between the ages of 21-27 jogged for 60 minutes at 60% of their VO2 max.The purpose of the study was to examine acute and chronic supplementation of FO (Huffman et al., 2004).Huffman define a chronic supplementation as 4g/day for 3 weeks.The athlete’s caloric intake was monitored as well.Huffman concluded in the study that chronic FO intake did not significantly improve respiratory exchange ratio but did increase fat energy expenditure during exercise.However, acute supplementation of FO did not result in an additive effect on fat oxidation.

The second study I found recruited twenty-five Australian League football players.Buckley studied the effect of 6/g per day of DHA consumption during 5 weeks of training.During exercise resting blood pressure, fasting serum triglycerides and heart rate during treadmill running at 10 km/h.It was found that the FO improved both cardiovascular function and reduced cardiovascular risk factors but did not improve endurance performance overall (Buckley, Burgess, Murphy, & Howe, 2005).

Finally, the third study focused on exercise-induced asthma (EID).Mickleborough looked for a dietary modification for elite athletes that would prevent need for pharmacological intervention.Ten elite athletes with EID and ten elite athletes without EID were tested with no modification of their daily diets other than a 3.2 g of EPA and 2.2 of DHA omega 3 were added in supplement.The athletes took the supplement for three weeks. Following the three weeks Mickleborough found that there was an improvement in post exercise pulmonary function in the athletes with EID.The data collected from this study showed FO has a marketable effect in suppressing EID in elite athletes (Mickleborough, 2008).

With the research discussed above and all the benefits explained one may ask them self,“There must be some side effect or down side to fish oil.” In deed there are some side effects, but nothing more than your average over the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory may produce.Side effects that have been associated with FO include bad breath, nausea, rash or nosebleed (Scott, 2007).Speaking as a consumer, the bad breath may be avoided by using the FO capsules marked “odorless” and nausea may be avoided by making sure FO is taken with a meal.FO is a blood thinner and should be advised from a medical professional if a consumer is already taken other blood thinners such as Coumadin or aspirin (Rudkowska, 2010).

Consumers, athletes, coaches and clinicians taking the time to read the research and overview what others have summarized should see that FO is indeed a wise investment for the body.Questions we often ask ourselves have been answered by research as shown in the above paragraphs.In conclusion, FO is a supplement forthcoming and booming with promise and as research progresses athletes will find it to be more and more effective in improving performance in both competition and practice.

References

1. Buckley, J., Burgess, S., Murphy, K., & Howe, P. (2005). Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk, exercise performance and recovery in Australian Football League (AFL) players. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 14S57

2.De Leiris, J., de Lorgeril, M., & Boucher, F. (2009). Fish oil and heart health. Journal Of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 54(5), 378-384.

3.Grenyer, B., Crowe, T., Meyer, B., Owen, A., Grigonis-Deane, E., Caputi, P., et al. (2007). Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of major depression: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Progress In Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 31(7), 1393-1396

4. Huffman, D., Michaelson, J., Thomas, T. (2004). Chronic Supplementation With Fish Oil Increase Fat Oxidation During Exercise in Young Men. Journal of Exercise Physiology. 7 (1), 48-56.

5. James, M., Proudman, S., & Cleland, L. (2010). Fish oil and rheumatoid arthritis: past, present and future. The Proceedings Of The Nutrition Society, 69(3), 316-323.

6. Maroon, J., & Bost, J. (2006). Omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) as an anti-inflammatory: an alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for discogenic pain. Surgical Neurology, 65(4), 326-331.

7. Martin, C. (2008). Omega-3 fatty acids: proven benefit or just a “fish story?” The Consultant Pharmacist: The Journal Of The American Society Of Consultant Pharmacists, 23(3), and 210.

8. Mickleborough, T., Lindley, M., & Montgomery, G. (2008). Effect of fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty Acid supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and immune function in athletes. The Physician And Sportsmedicine, 36(1), 11-17

9. Peet, M., & Stokes, C. (2005). Omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Drugs, 65(8), 1051-1059.

10. Rudkowska, I. (2010). Fish oils for cardiovascular disease: Impact on diabetes. Maturitas, 67(1), 25-28.

11. Scott, K. (2007). The Incredible Benefits of Fish Oil. Back to Form Fitness. Retrieved from www.backtoformfitness.com. October 2010.

12.Simopoulos, A. (2007). Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Athletics. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 6(4), 230-236.

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